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Other examples of the measurement of microcomponents include components for optical waveguide connectors with a diameter of approximately 120 µm and microgearwheels with modules measuring approximately 0.1 mm. Further measuring tasks of this type include the measurement of geometries of […]

Miniaturized components with increasingly smaller geometric features are manufactured for electronics, medical engineering, communications engineering, and the motor vehicle industries to enable complex functions requiring only a minimum amount of space. Inspections of bore diameters smaller than 0.1 mm and […]

Rotationally symmetrical parts are used in the construction of motor vehicles (especially in engines and transmissions), in the watch- and clockmaking industry, and in other branches of industry. Where relatively simply structured components manufactured by turning or grinding operations were […]

In order to meet any special requirements regarding measuring speed (large number of geometric elements on the hob cutter; production stoppage due to measurement, etc.), linear-drive coordinate measuring machines are preferred. The swiveling sensors make it possible to view the […]

Metal-cutting or machining processes are the preferred means of fabricating metal workpieces. Constantly increasing demands regarding precision, service life and machining speed have created a need for increased accuracy in the measurement of tool geometry. This is especially the case […]

The definition of the tolerance structures, especially regarding the reference systems, should be coordinated between the manufacturer and the customer from the beginning. The main advantage of this second inspection procedure is function-related measurement. The output is easy to survey […]

Profiled workpieces made of plastic, rubber or aluminum are required in the construction of vehicles (door and window seals, aluminum spaceframes), in the building trade (window profiles) and in automation systems (belt profiles, assembly modules). In the extrusion process, complex […]

Plate bending parts are widely manufactured for PC boards and plug contacts in the electrical engineering and automotive industries. A two-dimensional part with cut-outs is the classical application for 100% optical coordinate measuring machines such as the profile projector. Due […]

The injection molding process makes it possible to manufacture very complex plastic parts of good quality. Examples of such parts include functional and housing parts for automotive components, electronic and medical equipment and general consumer goods. A general trend toward […]

Since he cannot make the supplier accountable for his own measuring uncertainty, the customer can only file claims if these extended limits are violated. This is especially likely to lead to a contradiction if the customer’s own measuring uncertainty is […]

The capability of the measuring process is examined based on a comparison of the attainable (feature-dependent) measuring uncertainty, including all related influences, and the equally feature-related tolerance. A similar procedure is described in the company standards mentioned above. General procedures […]

Other part attributes such as form, roughness and contamination exert additional influence. For multisensor coordinate measuring machines, the parameters of the sensors are especially important for the attainable measuring uncertainty and must be added to the other machine attributes. Classified […]

Every measurement of dimensions such as size, angle, radius, form and position on workpieces is subject to a certain measuring uncertainty. The entire measuring process including the machine technology, the attributes of the part, the geometry of the features measured, […]

The most important attribute of a coordinate measuring machine is its contribution to the measuring uncertainty attainable in a measuring process. The user must be able to compare different machines, define their conditions of purchase and check their performance. The […]

Colloquially speaking, the term “measuring accuracy” refers to everything that characterizes the precision of measured results. However, a closer look shows that a distinction must be made between various categories: 1. Definition of the characteristics of a coordinate measuring machine […]

The same software configuration can also be operated without the measuring machine on a Cad-Offline® workstation. Here the measurement programs are created and tested on the CAD model. This saves valuable machining time and ensures that the measurement plans are […]

In the following, two possible best-fit strategies are presented based on the example of a 2-D section. In the first case, the location of the points actually measured is optimized by minimizing the distances from the nominal points (Werth BestFit). […]

The numerical evaluation of scanned contours or surfaces is basically limited to regular geometric features such as cylinders, planes, straight lines, spheres and circles. However, modern methods of production increasingly permit the manufacture of free forms for which regular shapes […]

The sensors are selected directly via the user interface of the multisensor coordinate measuring machine. Among other things, the software takes the distance between the sensors into account. This distance is determined by qualifying a calibrated standard (reference sphere). The […]

In industrial practice, it is often necessary to “quickly run off” a couple of measurements of manufactured parts. Such tasks are often assigned to employees who are not familiar with or lack training in the operation of coordinate measuring machines. […]

Modern multisensor coordinate measuring machines cover a wide spectrum of measurement jobs of varying complexity. The required operator qualifications range from employees who have received little training and only occasionally perform measurements to metrology specialists who fully exploit all of […]

The process for measuring a workpiece using a TomoScope® is shown in Figure 44. The measured object is located on the rotary table. During the tomography process, many 2-D radiographic images are taken. The part rotates once through 360 degrees. […]

Figure 43 illustrates the principle of the described correction method. The geometric artifact arises because, when rotating the rectangular measured object, shorter radiographic lengths occur at the corners than in the middle. This leads to an apparent spherical shape during […]

Other geometric artifacts arise from scattered radiation, the orientation of the rotary axis in the image, and other effects (Fig. 42). Analytical capture and correction of these complex interrelationships is barely possible at the moment, considering that the associated parameters […]

To be able to measure the shape and position of a measured object with sufficient precision, it is necessary to correct systematic errors in tomography. Several process-related effects lead to these systematic deviations. Common to all of them is the […]

Operation of the measuring device is done by the measurement software which is also used for optical-tactile coordinate measuring machines. The software modules needed for tomography measurements are also integrated in WinWerth® (Fig. 40). The entire measurement process using computer […]

The TomoCheck® shown in Figure 39 can be configured to suit the applications. Its mechanical base components come from the VideoCheck® product line. In order to obtain significantly lower measurement uncertainty, air bearings and other high-precision components are used. For […]

The Werth TomoScope® is the first implementation of the above principle in the world. The mechanical components, and thus the device precision, are based on the ScopeCheck® concept. By selecting the appropriate X-ray components (voltage range of Xray tube, detector […]

The base of the machine frame is of solid granite design. Other system components, such as scales, linear and rotary axes, drives, and guide components come from the family of coordinate measuring machines described above. Using this construction, calibration data […]

X-ray tomography uses the ability of X-ray radiation to penetrate objects. On the way through an object, part of the impinging radiation is absorbed. The longer the radiographic length of the object, the less radiation escapes from the opposite side. […]

In view of the required piece numbers, the machine classes previously introduced can be manufactured in volume. Specialized machine configurations (for example, two-dimensional machines for measuring profiles and flat parts) can be derived from these lines for restricted applications. In […]

For measuring ranges exceeding roughly 400 mm and where higher accuracy requirements exist, it generally proves economical to use bridge-type machines equipped with air bearings. A fixed-bridge construction is optimally suited to machines with transmitted-light illumination. The rigidity of the […]

Moreover, this guideway system also minimizes friction, reducing backlash on reversal as well. For the same reason, housing covers that produce friction are generally avoided. The long-term stability of the system is further supported by the fact that the guideways […]

In cases where higher demands exist regarding the precision and long-term stability of machines (for example, in the metrology lab and in production control), special new design approaches must be taken. Aluminum is used as a structural material to improve […]

One major area of application for coordinate measuring machines is the quality control of manufacturing processes. In order to keep transport routes short, coordinate measuring machines should be installed as close to the production environment as possible. The prevailing environmental […]

Multisensor coordinate measuring machines use a combination of several of the sensors described above. The properties of these sensors usually depend on their various primary applications (Fig. 27). Regarding applications, their distinguishing characteristics include the size of the object features […]

In addition, the principle of self-centering measurement with measuring probing systems is shown here based on the example of the fiber probe (Fig. 25). A calibrated sphere is positioned in a tooth space to determine the pitch errors of a […]

If the glass fiber supplies light to the probing tip, measurements can be performed in the self-illuminating mode (Fig. 24). It is also possible to use the fiber probe in the transmitted-light mode. Due to its small dimensions, the resulting […]

Fiber probes are manufactured by wire-drawing thin glass fibers and melting the spheres onto them. Good positioning of fiber probes at the location to be measured can be achieved by mounting them in a hollow metal needle (Fig. 23).

The conventional mechanical sensors mentioned above all have one thing in common: the signal is transmitted from the probing element through a rigid shaft to the actual sensor (for example, a switch or piezoelectric element). Since each deflection of the […]

In a measuring probing system, the sensor is equipped with path measuring systems (scales, inductive sensors, optical measuring systems, etc.), usually in all three coordinate axes. If, upon contacting the workpiece, the stylus sphere is deflected in any direction, the […]

It is not necessary to remove the stylus from the workpiece in order to measure several different surfaces of the same object. When combined with the appropriate control software, this principle provides the basis for automatic scanning of object surfaces […]

Basic touch trigger probing systems function according to the “three-leg principle” (Fig. 19a). If the stylus sphere contacts the workpiece, a trigger signal is generated for read-out by the scale systems of the coordinate measuring machine. The measured point results […]

The use of visual sensors usually requires reflected-light as well as transmitted-light illumination. A distinction must be made here between two types: bright field reflected light is projected onto the object parallel to the axis of the beam path. Ideally, this […]

The basis for every optical measurement is to display the features being measured with a highly accentuated contrast. This can best be achieved on the outer edges of objects. In this case, measurement can be performed in transmitted light (Fig. […]

Today, image processing sensors are commonly used as visual sensors (Fig. 8). The object is imaged onto a matrix camera by the lens. The camera electronics convert the optical signal to a digital image, which is then used to calculate […]

The lowest measuring uncertainty can be achieved using telecentric lens systems. The advantage of telecentrics is that the lateral magnification remains constant when the working distance is altered within the telecentric range, thus preventing errors of dimension. This is especially […]

Today, digitization of images is usually achieved using CCD cameras in conjunction with PC components suitable for image acquisition (framegrabber boards, firewire interfaces, etc.). The chief advantage offered by the CCD camera over the competing CMOS chip lies in its […]

All tactile sensors function on the principle of mechanical contact with the workpiece. The resulting signals are then derived from this contact for further processing. A distinction is made here between touch trigger and measuring probing systems. With a tactile […]

Line sensors (2-D) and area sensors (3-D) function similarly to the spot-shaped distance sensors (1-D) mentioned above. In the laser light section technique (Fig. 16a), the conventional laser triangulation technique is extended to two-dimensional measurement by displacing the laser beam […]

The measuring principle of a laser point sensor is based on the projection of a beam of light produced by a laser (usually a laser diode) onto the object to be measured. The reflected beam spot is imaged on an […]

Big TS Technology in a Small Package – With the TomoScope® XS, TomoScope technology is now available in a new compact format. The new machine type uniquely combines many advantages of various machine classes. The transmission tube – with a […]

One benefit of computed tomography is that the workpiece is captured completely, including undercuts and internal geometries. Historically, computed tomography has been too slow for measurements during the manufacturing process. For years, real-time reconstruction in WinWerth® in parallel with image […]

The same hardware components are used for autofocus as for image processing. When the sensor is moved along the optical axis, a sharply defined image results only in a single position. If the sensor is defocused, blurred images are produced. […]

Electronic components such as plug connectors are getting smaller, presenting ever greater challenges for manufacturing.  ERNI Electronics uses 3D CNC multisensor measuring machines to secure its manufacturing processes, one of which has mastered X-ray computed tomography.  Modern metrology allows rapid […]

The term “visual sensor” denotes all sensors which, similar to the human eye, pick up at least a two-dimensional image of the object being measured. The intensity distribution of this optical image is detected and evaluated by a sensor. For […]

The sensors of a coordinate measuring machine are used to pick up the primary signal from the workpiece. They are designed using mechanical and, in some cases, opto-electronic and software components of varying complexity. The sensors must be selected on […]

For higher precision requirements and larger measuring ranges, the mechanical guide way of the desktop model is replaced by systems with air bearings.  The high-precision guide ways are typically made of a natural hard stone material like granite.  All moving […]

The Mechanical components of this group of instruments were created as a logical further development of measuring microscopes and measuring projectors.  They primarily consist of a mechanical stage with mechanical bearings (Fig. 5a).  The Z axis also runs on mechanical […]

In the case of the profile projector, the instrument’s optics project a correctly scaled image of the workpiece onto a ground glass screen. Using an equally scaled drawing, a direct comparison can be made between the imaged workpiece area and the […]

The measuring microscope is considered to be the “father” of all coordinate measuring machines. Here, a microscope and the human eye are used as a “sensor” (Fig. 3a). The operator uses a reticle integrated in the beam path to aim at the […]

Coordinate measuring machines are used to measure geometric features of workpieces such as size, diameter, angle, angularity and parallelism. In principle, relatively complex shape, size and position measurements are reduced to the determination and mathematical evaluation of the spatial coordinates […]

Up until a few years ago optical (or non-contact) dimensional metrology was dominated by measuring microscopes and projectors which had remained more or less unchanged since the development of the profile projector (below). However, the automatic measurement of geometric features […]

Flexible multisensor coordinate metrology is finding increased use in incoming inspection and production monitoring for complex workpieces.  There is always a choice to be made between faster or more precise sensors and machines.  As a result, the evaluation of measurement […]

An image processing sensor with zoom optics supports different magnifications, thus expanding the potential applications of the coordinate measuring machine.  A change in magnification, however, also affects the other parameters of the zoom optics.  This must be taken into consideration […]

There are a great many contact and non-contact sensors for measuring workpiece surfaces.  Depending on the measurement task and the surface properties, a suitable sensor is selected.  The greatest flexibility comes with different sensors in a single measuring machine. For […]

When selecting a coordinate measuring machine with a computed tomography sensor system, the resolution required for the measurement task must be considered.  The interplay of the detector, X-ray source, and location of the workpiece is critical.  If the machine components […]

Scanning is a way to capture the geometries of workpieces with a lot of points in a reliable process, to measure dimensions, shape, and orientation in a functionally correct manner.  Contour scanning uses a feedback control algorithm in conjunction with […]

Selecting the right measuring equipment for dimensional measurement tasks is very important.  The basic approach is:  THE APPLICATION DETERMINES THE SENSOR.  The user needs to consider various aspects when making this decision. Multisensor Coordinate Measuring Machines due to their high […]

Werth delivers value added solutions. Isometric Micro Molding is the only micro molding company in the world with four in-house key capabilities for successful micro molding. An integral part of their setup is the Werth TomoScope – the most accurate […]

For productive, efficient machining many companies use solid carbide tools that are specially matched to the production process which can reliably maintain tolerances even in the micron range. In order to be able to manufacture these tools consistently, Wolf relies […]

Measuring injection molded parts from the top and from the side in one setup has been impossible for medical device manufacturer Balda Medical, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany, until now. Multisensor machines from Werth Messtechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany, solve this problem with […]

By combining the Werth VideoCheck® UA multisensor coordinate measuring machine with the highly accurate SP80 probe system from Renishaw, length measurement deviations MPE E of (0.5 + L / 600) µm can be realized. Very good results are also obtained […]

With several hundred installations worldwide, the Werth Fiber Probe, developed in co-operation with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB – German National Metrology Institute), is currently the most commonly used micro-probe. It has been used for many years to measure micro-gears, gages, […]

The ScopeCheck® series of measuring machines permits optimal measuring with each sensor. Using the dual ram approach and the Werth multisensor interface, collision-free measurements with multiple sensors can now be used on the shop floor. In essence, two coordinate measuring […]

Raster scanning can be used to capture large areas with high structural resolution automatically. The image processing sensor is continuously in motion as many overlapping images are recorded at a high frequency. A reconstruction process integrates these images into one […]

Coordinate measuring machines with computed tomography sensors have become a practically indispensable part of modern quality control. When the Werth TomoScope® 200 was presented at the Control trade show in Sinsheim in 2005, a new era in coordinate measuring technology […]

For many years, measuring fuel injector nozzles has been part of the standard repertoire at Werth Messtechnik GmbH. Typically, the injector hole diameters of just a few tenths of a millimeter are measured using VideoCheck multisensor coordinate measuring machines with […]

Due to their “non-contact probing”, optical sensors are very well suited for high-precision 2D and 3D measurements of micro-features. A large number of measurement points can be captured very quickly and easily. The application-specific resolution can be adjusted very easily […]

Werth Messtechnik offers even the manual entry level model of the EasyScope series with automatic image processing and autofocus function for measuring in the vertical axis. This puts the EasyScope well ahead of all other manual video measuring machines. Of […]

With a measurement range of up to 3500 mm in the X axis and 1750 mm in the Y axis, the ScopeCheck® FB is designed for measuring large-volume workpieces close to the manufacturing process. Its solid construction with a fixed […]

The NanoMatic, a CNC measuring machine for rapid production monitoring of tooling, combines the benefits of proven Werth coordinate measuring machines and Tool MT’s more than 20 years of experience in tool metrology. With a design that dampens vibration and […]

Precision requirements for work pieces are becoming more demanding and are often in the micrometer range. This means that requirements for master workpieces for gaging benches and machines as used in the automotive industry are also increasing. The VideoCheck® V […]

In coordinate measuring technology with computed tomography (CT), the dimensional analysis of work pieces made of multiple materials is particularly challenging. Werth Messtechnik has developed a unique solution. Multi-material work pieces are often metal and plastic components, such as assembled […]

The ScopeCheck MB from Werth Messtechnik GmbH was designed specifically for the measurement of large and heavy work pieces. The position of the sensors is adjusted with the moving bridge, so it is not necessary to move the work piece […]

Every measurement result is associated with a measurement uncertainty that is influenced by numerous factors. In addition to the measuring machine, the operator, the measuring object, and the features to be measured, the environmental conditions are a factor that is […]

Region of Interest” (ROI) tomography was developed to create high-resolution images of some regions of larger work pieces. In the past, the entire work pieces always had to be fully scanned at high resolution. ROI-CT only measures the relevant area […]

The Werth VideoCheck V HA is the world’s most precise multisensor coordinate measuring machine for tool applications. Its precision air bearings and solid granite design, together with a high-precision rotary axis, achieve levels of measuring uncertainty that allow tools with tolerances […]

The VideoCheck UA (Ultra Accuracy) multisensor coordinate measuring machine provides unique technical properties for precision applications. Special air bearing technology, integrated vibration isolation, temperature-stable encoder systems with better than 1-nanometer resolution, and a special drive system all support reproducibility in the […]

The ultra compact Werth ScopeCheck® S Probe coordinate measuring machine has advanced scanning capability, giving it a very good price-to-performance ratio. The measurement range is 400 mm in the X axis, 200 mm in the Y axis, and 200 mm […]

The term Autocorrection was coined by the Werth Messtechnik company with the introduction of the first coordinate measuring machines with computed tomography (CT) in 2005. Thanks to the greatly improved precision of CT, the original multisensor method is now used […]

The unique design of the Werth VideoCheck S with constant tension guides ensures high precision and long term stability. In this guideway system magnetic and gravitational forces produce the preload for the X and Y axis. This prevents changes in […]

The new version 8.40 of WinWerth® has a number of additional functions. The expansion of scan path and point distribution modes to cover all standard geometric elements eliminates the need for time-consuming manual positioning of the sensor. The risk of […]

For many years the VideoCheck® coordinate measuring machines have proven the value of measuring with multiple sensors mounted on two independent Z rams. The risk of a collision between sensor and work piece is substantially reduced because the sensors that […]

The new TomoCheck® HA (High Accuracy) 200 from Werth Messtechnik GmbH has impressive new features. By combining transmission tubes with up to 225 kV acceleration voltage and large, high-resolution detectors, both multi-material assemblies and large-volume workpieces can be measured at high […]

With the WMS Multisensor System multisensor technology is now perfectly integrated. This universal interface permits the exchange of various sensors at the identical position on the measuring machine, e.g. conventional touch probes, the WCP Werth Contour Probe, lens attachments, angular […]

The 3D-Patch/S is available for all Werth Messtechnik coordinate measuring machines, including retrofitting of existing machines. A light control algorithm adjusts the intensity of illumination automatically to the workpiece surface. Werth coordinate measuring machines offer the possibility to apply the […]

The ScopeCheck V and VideoCheck V machine series from Werth Messtechnik GmbH have the perfect solution for precision measurement of challenging, rotationally symmetric components. In contrast to classic shaft measuring machines, where only 2D dimensions can be determined using transmitted […]