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Main Applications – Components with Microgeometries-2

Other examples of the measurement of microcomponents include components for optical waveguide connectors with a diameter of approximately 120 µm and microgearwheels with modules measuring approximately 0.1 mm. Further measuring tasks of this type include the measurement of geometries of […]

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Main Applications – Components with Microgeometries-1

Miniaturized components with increasingly smaller geometric features are manufactured for electronics, medical engineering, communications engineering, and the motor vehicle industries to enable complex functions requiring only a minimum amount of space. Inspections of bore diameters smaller than 0.1 mm and […]

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Main Applications – Shafts

Rotationally symmetrical parts are used in the construction of motor vehicles (especially in engines and transmissions), in the watch- and clockmaking industry, and in other branches of industry. Where relatively simply structured components manufactured by turning or grinding operations were […]

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Main Applications – Metal-Cutting Tools-2

In order to meet any special requirements regarding measuring speed (large number of geometric elements on the hob cutter; production stoppage due to measurement, etc.), linear-drive coordinate measuring machines are preferred. The swiveling sensors make it possible to view the […]

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Main Applications – Metal-Cutting Tools-1

Metal-cutting or machining processes are the preferred means of fabricating metal workpieces. Constantly increasing demands regarding precision, service life and machining speed have created a need for increased accuracy in the measurement of tool geometry. This is especially the case […]

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Main Applications – Profiled Workpieces-2

The definition of the tolerance structures, especially regarding the reference systems, should be coordinated between the manufacturer and the customer from the beginning. The main advantage of this second inspection procedure is function-related measurement. The output is easy to survey […]

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Main Applications – Profiled Workpieces-1

Profiled workpieces made of plastic, rubber or aluminum are required in the construction of vehicles (door and window seals, aluminum spaceframes), in the building trade (window profiles) and in automation systems (belt profiles, assembly modules). In the extrusion process, complex […]

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Main Applications – Plate Bending Parts and Punching Tools

Plate bending parts are widely manufactured for PC boards and plug contacts in the electrical engineering and automotive industries. A two-dimensional part with cut-outs is the classical application for 100% optical coordinate measuring machines such as the profile projector. Due […]

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Main Applications – Injection Molding

The injection molding process makes it possible to manufacture very complex plastic parts of good quality. Examples of such parts include functional and housing parts for automotive components, electronic and medical equipment and general consumer goods. A general trend toward […]

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Measuring Accuracy – Capability of the Measuring Process-2

Since he cannot make the supplier accountable for his own measuring uncertainty, the customer can only file claims if these extended limits are violated. This is especially likely to lead to a contradiction if the customer’s own measuring uncertainty is […]

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Measuring Accuracy – Capability of the Measuring Process-1

The capability of the measuring process is examined based on a comparison of the attainable (feature-dependent) measuring uncertainty, including all related influences, and the equally feature-related tolerance. A similar procedure is described in the company standards mentioned above. General procedures […]

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Measuring Accuracy – Measuring Uncertainty-2

Other part attributes such as form, roughness and contamination exert additional influence. For multisensor coordinate measuring machines, the parameters of the sensors are especially important for the attainable measuring uncertainty and must be added to the other machine attributes. Classified […]

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Measuring Accuracy – Measuring Uncertainty-1

Every measurement of dimensions such as size, angle, radius, form and position on workpieces is subject to a certain measuring uncertainty. The entire measuring process including the machine technology, the attributes of the part, the geometry of the features measured, […]

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Measuring Accuracy – Specification and Acceptance Test

The most important attribute of a coordinate measuring machine is its contribution to the measuring uncertainty attainable in a measuring process. The user must be able to compare different machines, define their conditions of purchase and check their performance. The […]

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Measuring Accuracy

Colloquially speaking, the term “measuring accuracy” refers to everything that characterizes the precision of measured results. However, a closer look shows that a distinction must be made between various categories: definition of the characteristics of a coordinate measuring machine in […]

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Machine Software – Measurement with CAD Data-3

The same software configuration can also be operated without the measuring machine on a Cad-Offline® workstation. Here the measurement programs are created and tested on the CAD model. This saves valuable machining time and ensures that the measurement plans are […]

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Machine Software – Measurement with CAD Data-2

In the following, two possible best-fit strategies are presented based on the example of a 2-D section. In the first case, the location of the points actually measured is optimized by minimizing the distances from the nominal points (Werth BestFit). […]

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Machine Software – Measurement with CAD Data-1

The numerical evaluation of scanned contours or surfaces is basically limited to regular geometric features such as cylinders, planes, straight lines, spheres and circles. However, modern methods of production increasingly permit the manufacture of free forms for which regular shapes […]

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Machine Software – Programming of Complex Measuring Runs

The sensors are selected directly via the user interface of the multisensor coordinate measuring machine. Among other things, the software takes the distance between the sensors into account. This distance is determined by qualifying a calibrated standard (reference sphere). The […]

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Machine Software – Interactive Graphic Measurement

In industrial practice, it is often necessary to “quickly run off” a couple of measurements of manufactured parts. Such tasks are often assigned to employees who are not familiar with or lack training in the operation of coordinate measuring machines. […]

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Machine Software

Modern multisensor coordinate measuring machines cover a wide spectrum of measurement jobs of varying complexity. The required operator qualifications range from employees who have received little training and only occasionally perform measurements to metrology specialists who fully exploit all of […]

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Computer Tomography – Measuring a Plastic Part

The process for measuring a workpiece using a TomoScope® is shown in Figure 44. The measured object is located on the rotary table. During the tomography process, many 2-D radiographic images are taken. The part rotates once through 360 degrees. […]

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Computer Tomography – Precise Measurement with Computer Tomography-3

Figure 43 illustrates the principle of the described correction method. The geometric artifact arises because, when rotating the rectangular measured object, shorter radiographic lengths occur at the corners than in the middle. This leads to an apparent spherical shape during […]

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Computer Tomography – Precise Measurement with Computer Tomography-2

Other geometric artifacts arise from scattered radiation, the orientation of the rotary axis in the image, and other effects (Fig. 42). Analytical capture and correction of these complex interrelationships is barely possible at the moment, considering that the associated parameters […]

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Computer Tomography – Precise Measurement with Computer Tomography-1

To be able to measure the shape and position of a measured object with sufficient precision, it is necessary to correct systematic errors in tomography. Several process-related effects lead to these systematic deviations. Common to all of them is the […]

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Computer Tomography – Multisensor Coordinate Measuring with X-Ray Tomography-4

Operation of the measuring device is done by the measurement software which is also used for optical-tactile coordinate measuring machines. The software modules needed for tomography measurements are also integrated in WinWerth® (Fig. 40). The entire measurement process using computer […]

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Computer Tomography – Multisensor Coordinate Measuring Machines with X-Ray Tomography-3

The TomoCheck® shown in Figure 39 can be configured to suit the applications. Its mechanical base components come from the VideoCheck® product line. In order to obtain significantly lower measurement uncertainty, air bearings and other high-precision components are used. For […]

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Computer Tomography – Multisensor Coordinate Measuring Machines with X-Ray Tomography-2

The Werth TomoScope® is the first implementation of the above principle in the world. The mechanical components, and thus the device precision, are based on the ScopeCheck® concept. By selecting the appropriate X-ray components (voltage range of Xray tube, detector […]

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Computer Tomography – Multisensor Coordinate Measuring Machines with X-ray Tomography-1

The base of the machine frame is of solid granite design. Other system components, such as scales, linear and rotary axes, drives, and guide components come from the family of coordinate measuring machines described above. Using this construction, calibration data […]

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Computer Tomography – Principle of X-Ray Tomography

X-ray tomography uses the ability of X-ray radiation to penetrate objects. On the way through an object, part of the impinging radiation is absorbed. The longer the radiographic length of the object, the less radiation escapes from the opposite side. […]

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Machine Classes – Special Machines

In view of the required piece numbers, the machine classes previously introduced can be manufactured in volume. Specialized machine configurations (for example, two-dimensional machines for measuring profiles and flat parts) can be derived from these lines for restricted applications. In […]

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Machine Classes – Bridge-Type Machines with Air Bearings-2

A fixed-bridge construction is optimally suited to machines with transmitted-light illumination. The rigidity of the entire system enables excellent measuring uncertainty values. This is supported by manufacturing the bridge in a single piece with close tolerances. No subsequent adjustment of […]

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Machine Classes – Bridge-Type Machines with Air Bearings-1

For measuring ranges exceeding roughly 400 mm and where higher accuracy requirements exist, it generally proves economical to use bridge-type machines equipped with air bearings. A fixed-bridge construction is optimally suited to machines with transmitted-light illumination. The rigidity of the […]

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Machine Classes-Precision Machines with Mechanical Bearings-2

Moreover, this guideway system also minimizes friction, reducing backlash on reversal as well. For the same reason, housing covers that produce friction are generally avoided. The long-term stability of the system is further supported by the fact that the guideways […]

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Machine Classes-Precision Machines with Mechanical Bearings-1

In cases where higher demands exist regarding the precision and long-term stability of machines (for example, in the metrology lab and in production control), special new design approaches must be taken. Aluminum is used as a structural material to improve […]

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Machine Classes – Workshop Measuring Machines

One major area of application for coordinate measuring machines is the quality control of manufacturing processes. In order to keep transport routes short, coordinate measuring machines should be installed as close to the production environment as possible. The prevailing environmental […]

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Multisensor Technology

Multisensor coordinate measuring machines use a combination of several of the sensors described above. The properties of these sensors usually depend on their various primary applications (Fig. 27). Regarding applications, their distinguishing characteristics include the size of the object features […]

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Tactile Sensors – Measuring Tactile-Optical Sensor-4

In addition, the principle of self-centering measurement with measuring probing systems is shown here based on the example of the fiber probe (Fig. 25). A calibrated sphere is positioned in a tooth space to determine the pitch errors of a […]

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Tactile Sensors – Measuring Tactile-Optical Sensor-3

If the glass fiber supplies light to the probing tip, measurements can be performed in the self-illuminating mode (Fig. 24). It is also possible to use the fiber probe in the transmitted-light mode. Due to its small dimensions, the resulting […]

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Tactile Sensors – Measuring Tactile-Optical Sensor-2

Fiber probes are manufactured by wire-drawing thin glass fibers and melting the spheres onto them. Good positioning of fiber probes at the location to be measured can be achieved by mounting them in a hollow metal needle (Fig. 23).

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Tactile Sensors – Measuring Tactile-Optical Sensor-1

The conventional mechanical sensors mentioned above all have one thing in common: the signal is transmitted from the probing element through a rigid shaft to the actual sensor (for example, a switch or piezoelectric element). Since each deflection of the […]

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Tactile Sensors – Measuring Tactile Sensors – 2

It is not necessary to remove the stylus from the workpiece in order to measure several different surfaces of the same object. When combined with the appropriate control software, this principle provides the basis for automatic scanning of object surfaces […]

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Tactile Sensors – Measuring Tactile Sensors – 1

In a measuring probing system, the sensor is equipped with path measuring systems (scales, inductive sensors, optical measuring systems, etc.), usually in all three coordinate axes. If, upon contacting the workpiece, the stylus sphere is deflected in any direction, the […]

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Tactile Sensors – Touch Trigger Tactile Sensors

Basic touch trigger probing systems function according to the “three-leg principle” (Fig. 19a). If the stylus sphere contacts the workpiece, a trigger signal is generated for read-out by the scale systems of the coordinate measuring machine. The measured point results […]

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Tactile Sensors

All tactile sensors function on the principle of mechanical contact with the workpiece. The resulting signals are then derived from this contact for further processing. A distinction is made here between touch trigger and measuring probing systems. With a tactile […]

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Multidimensional Distance Sensors

Line sensors (2-D) and area sensors (3-D) function similarly to the spot-shaped distance sensors (1-D) mentioned above. In the laser light section technique (Fig. 16a), the conventional laser triangulation technique is extended to two-dimensional measurement by displacing the laser beam […]

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Laser Point Sensors

The measuring principle of a laser point sensor is based on the projection of a beam of light produced by a laser (usually a laser diode) onto the object to be measured. The reflected beam spot is imaged on an […]

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Autofocus

The same hardware components are used for autofocus as for image processing. When the sensor is moved along the optical axis, a sharply defined image results only in a single position. If the sensor is defocused, blurred images are produced. […]

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Illumination for Visual Sensors – 2

The use of visual sensors usually requires reflected-light as well as transmitted-light illumination. A distinction must be made here between two types: bright field reflected light is projected onto the object parallel to the axis of the beam path. Ideally, this […]

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Illumination for Visual Sensors – 1

The basis for every optical measurement is to display the features being measured with a highly accentuated contrast. This can best be achieved on the outer edges of objects. In this case, measurement can be performed in transmitted light (Fig. […]

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