In order to be able to carry out three-dimensional (3D) measurements of workpieces with optical sensors, a method for measurements along the third coordinate axis is required in addition to the image processing sensor. One such distance sensor is the […]

With optical sensors, many measurement points are captured very quickly or even simultaneously. For this reason, they are used for a wide variety of workpieces in production monitoring. Due to their flexible application options, image processing is part of the […]

The selection of the sensor for multi-sensor applications must always be made taking into account the measuring task. Economic aspects such as measuring time and costs also play a role. The structure of the sensors consisting of mechanics, optics, electronics […]

The wall thickness of containers is an important parameter in the packaging industry, for example for bottles. It determines whether the packaging has the required strength or whether perhaps even too much material is used, which can cause not inconsiderable […]

To achieve high resolution, the distance between the workpiece and the X-ray tube must be very small. If it is large, flat workpieces such as printed circuit boards are to be tomographed, the large aspect ratio could lead to a […]

Conventional algorithms allow automatic and sufficiently accurate determination of surface points without prior information about the workpiece (e.g., CAD model or STL point cloud of a master part) only for measuring objects made of one material. With the new WinWerth® […]

With Spiral (Helical) Tomography, the measuring object is moved screw-like along the rotary axis as it rotates. This has the benefit that all parts of the measuring object are irradiated horizontally from the source to the detector at least once. […]

The new Multi-Spectra Tomography (MSP CT) ena­bles high-resolution, low-artifact measurements of difficult-to-penetrate workpieces and assemblies. Pre­viously, measurement accuracy was low, for example, when measuring larger cast aluminum workpieces due to severe artifacts. Measurements with low power and a small focal […]

Version 9.45 of the WinWerth® measurement software offers many new and improved functions, for example, Spiral (Helical) Tomography to increase accuracy with the smallest measurement errors in the range of 0.5 µm . With Multi-Spectra Tomography, high­-resolution, low-artifact measurements of […]

Some workpieces, such as thin sheet metal, must not be contacted or moved, but are also too large and hea­vy for rotary axes. In such cases, a multisensor capa­ble rotary/tilt head is needed for measurement on both sides. The WRT […]

Werth TomoScope® coordinate measuring systems with computed tomography offer high measuring speed at high resolution. Transmission tubes with 80 W tube power allow measurements up to five times faster than conventional reflection tubes with the same structural resolution. OnTheFly CT for […]

Since its foundation in 1817, the Senckenberg Society for Nature Research has been researching the deve­lopment of the earth and the importance of biodiversity. The Senckenberg Natural History Museum at the main site in Frankfurt am Main is one of […]

With the high-precision machines of the VideoCheck® S series, the potential of the most accurate sensors can be fully exploited. The multisensor technology with large sensor selection allows the economical solution of many measurement tasks with one machine. Werth offers […]

Werth has further improved the accuracy of its computed tomography and multi-sensor coordinate measuring machines. The new TomoScope® S Plus 240 impresses with double the measuring volume, the VideoCheck® UA with a unique specification and the new VideoCheck® S with up to three […]

We will be exhibiting at Eastec from November 7-9th! If you are interested in trying out the industry’s most compact tomography machine – TomoScope® XS, Come see us at booth #2210 for a complimentary test measurement! From micro molding to […]

By merging several sensors into a multisensor, costs are reduced and operation is simplified. The Chromatic Focus Zoom offers high flexibility and accuracy for non-contact measurements without sensor offset in all three spatial directions. After integrating the Werth Laser Probe […]

Fast measurement with high resolution in compact design These X-ray sources in monoblock design, unique in the market, enable measurements in high resolution with extremely short measuring times. By using transmission targets, these tubes offer focal spot sizes of a […]

With plastic gears, often all teeth have to be measured due to the manufacturing process. Computed tomography allows the entire workpiece to be captured in a single measuring process, thus achieving an enormous time advantage. Using the CT data, gear […]

With high speed and precision, workpieces can be fully captured by X-ray computed tomography. For measurements in parallel with production, however, this method has often been too slow. A new type of machine now combines the advantages of various classes […]

Figure: Fiber structure of a filter (left) and penetration depth of particles (right, view from inside the workpiece onto the surface) with dimensions in the single-digit micrometer range. A new machine solution from Werth Messtechnik combines a submicrofocus tube and […]

A connector usually contains several stamped and bent parts that must be manufactured with high precision. In order to prove and document the required quality (and ultimately to optimize the process), Unimet has invested in four Werth Videocheck  multisensor measuring […]

Figure 1: Laser sensor using the Foucault principle integrated into an image processing sensor (illumination systems not shown). Optical Sensor Technology in Coordinate Metrology In coordinate measuring technology, mainly tactile and optical sensors and X-ray computed tomography are used. Optical […]

Figure 1. Calculating volume data by back projection of the filtered radiographic images: a) Object, b) X-ray beam path in one section plane, c) Principle of stepwise back projection and superimposing, d) Result of reconstruction with different numbers of back […]

Attaining Reliable Measurement Results in any Environment Deviations from the reference temperature can cause large measurement errors. The recording of the temperature enables a mathematical compensation of the thermal effects on the coordinate measuring machine. This results in a much […]

Measurement technology has always played a central role at the stamping and bending technology specialist Johann Vitz in Velbert. Managing Director Michael Vitz is convinced that the 3D multisensor coordinate measuring technology from Werth in particular secures a competitive edge […]

Figure 1. Measurement of a micro gear with the Werth Fiber Probe – the fiber is guided in a metal tube. Flexible and Surface Independent Sensors In coordinate metrology, mainly tactile and optical sensors, as well as X-ray computed tomography, […]

Fig. 1. One of Werth’s newest computed x-ray tomography machines the TomoScope XS Plus Measure as Accurately as a Probe or Optics Using Computed Tomography in Coordinate Metrology PRACTICAL TIP For precise measurements with X-ray computed tomography (CT), Autocorrection based […]

In addition to determining geometric properties such as dimensions as well as shape and position tolerances, burr inspection is one of the most important tasks in the quality assurance of plastic workpieces. Computed tomography, in combination with intelligent software, enables […]

For years, toolmaker Mauth had to calculate more time for measuring complicated form cutters than for their grinding process. With the new 3D coordinate measuring machine Scope Check S from Werth Messtechnik, the relationship has changed. The production-related measurement system […]

Finally! X-ray tomography available at the price of conventional 3D coordinate measuring machines. A major upgrade from the TomoScope XS, TomoScope XS Plus offers the same characteristics but with double the measuring range because of moveable X and Y axes […]

Click here to learn more about the latest Werth Innovations and Werth Measurement Technology for your Quality Products

Sensors used in coordinate metrology are based on various physical principles. Several different sensors are often needed to measure areas of the same workpiece surface that have different properties. With a multisensory coordinate measuring machine, such measurements can be performed […]

To make it easier to create and edit measurement se- quences, the new version of WinWerth® has a waste- basket function. The procedure is based on familiar Microsoft Windows features. Objects that are deleted during an editing session are saved […]

Find out what is new in the 2019 issue of Multisensor, the annual publication of Werth Messtechnik in Germany.

CAD models, measurement point clouds, and volume data can be displayed one at a time or superimposed three-dimensionally in the same coordinate system with the 3D module of WinWerth® measurement software, so they can be analyzed from all sides. The […]

Starting in 2018 all manufactures of medical luers are required to measure the luer thread dimensions following the ISO 80369-7 standard. The current manufacturing method of the inner thread uses core pins in the mold. The angular orientation of those […]

Quality assurance tasks at companies have become more and more diverse as the range of products and geometric properties to be captured increases. With efficient, automated measurements, multisensor coordinate measuring machines provide the flexibility that this requires. One single machine […]

Several different methods are used to achieve high product quality in injection molding. The standard method is to design the mold under consideration of the production parameters, for example the shrinkage of the plastic can be taken into account. An […]

The Werth Chromatic Focus Point sensor is a highly accurate optical distance sensor that is largely insensitive to surface condition.A typical application is determining flatness by scanning quickly using the sensor’s own measuring range. The Chromatic Focus Point sensor (CFP) […]

The Werth 3D-Patch is a focus variation sensor that captures a surface area and automatically adapts sensor parameters to the surface characteristics of the workpiece. It also includes HDR functionality.The sensor makes it possible to perform 3D surface deviation analyses […]

Practical Tip-Why to Use Multisensor Technology-QZ 12.2017

The work piece changing system transports various work pieces in sequence from a pallet into the measurement area, then removes them again afterwards. With this automatic loading, the TomoScope® can also be used during “unmanned” night shifts or over the […]

Computed tomography (CT) reconstructs the entire work piece volume from 2D radiographic images. Inspection tasks such as void analysis or inspection of the situation in an assembly can be performed directly on the X-ray images without measurements. To support such […]

There are several calculation strategies available in WinWerth® for analyzing circles and cylinders. Among others, Gaussian, maximum inscribed, minimum circumscribed, and minimal zone elements can be calculated. Expanding on the maximum inscribed, minimum circumscribed, and minimal zone elements can be […]

Tables of measured values, 2D and 3D graphs, BestFit and ToleranceFit® plots, camera images from the image processing sensor or any other images can be documented in the office report. The measurement report can be created any time after the measurement […]

Various functions for editing measurement programs are integrated in the WinWerth® measurement software. After modifying the position, measurement window size, or light settings, the element can immediately be measured automatically. This way, the adaptions can be tested quickly without running […]

Complete measurement programs for all sensors may be created offline or online on the CAD model from single points, scan paths, and free-form scanning. Sensor parameters such as light settings, measurement strategies, and image processing filters can also be selected […]

For cylinder, cone, and sphere elements, automatic scan path and point distributions are available with the helix, circles, or surface lines strategies. On flat surfaces, scan paths are distributed in a particular shape (grid, star, or spiral), measured as an […]

Today, using WinWerth® measurement software, measurement sequences can be created from 3D CAD data away from the machine.  Optimal measurement methods can be determined at the CAD workstation and measurement sequences can be simulated graphically. Programs are thus available prior to […]

Quality assurance uses various measuring machine concepts depending on the measurement task:  for production monitoring, extremely fast machines are needed and high-precision multisensor coordinate measuring machines are required for work pieces with tight tolerances. For first article inspection, however, computed tomography that captures […]

One benefit of computed tomography is that the work piece is captured completely, including undercuts and internal geometries.  Historically, computed tomography has been too slow for  measurements during the manufacturing process. For years, real time reconstruction in WinWerth in parallel with image capture […]

Like all Werth CT machines, the TomoScope® XS also reconstructs the work piece volume in real time, in parallel with capturing the images, allowing the system to be used for production monitoring. The use of Win Werth® measurement software for […]

In recent years, developments in computed tomography have concentrated on the high resolution measurement of large work pieces and materials that are difficult to penetrate. To this end, large and heavy coordinate measuring machines were used. X-ray tubes came in […]

The Chromatic Focus Line sensor provides another interesting function: in addition to the wavelength of the reflected light, its intensity is also analyzed and a raster image of the work piece surface is generated. Subsequent analysis with image processing software […]

Werth Messtechnik presents the latest innovation in its extensive selection of sensors:  with the Chromatic Focus Line (CFL) sensor, entire work piece geometries are captured rapidly. Using different lenses, the measurement uncertainty and range can be adapted to a particular […]

A quick “in the image” measurement in the field of view of the image processing sensor has the same advantages for large work pieces as it does for small, however the measurement precision is not a high as it could […]

The new Measuring Spot Sensor simulates a tactile scan path or point distribution on a point cloud. The measurement points or scan paths, as is the case of tactile sensors, are automatically distributed on the selected geometrical features using the […]

The machine can optionally be equipped with two independent sensor axes. Both optical and tactile measurements as well as an optimal combination of both measurement principles are possible. During measurements with one sensor, the second axis remains in the park […]

The ScopeCheck FB DZ product line offers compact devices with large measuring ranges. A large combined measurement range can be achieved for Multisensor measurements, as for the smallest machine it is 425 mm x 500 mm x 350 mm with […]

With computed tomography, the complete work piece geometry is captured with one single measurement. To determine the measurement points in the entire voxel volume, at Werth the material transitions are calculated using a patented subvoxeling process. Using this process, it […]

WinWerth 8.42 now offers the functionality of a more comprehensive and clearer display of geometrical characteristics in the 3D graphic.  The display of the geometrical characteristics is now based on the ISO Norm 16792. The actual values are color coded. […]

Measurement technology is increasingly being integrated in production processes. Functions such as the OnTheFly operating mode, wherein measurements can be performed with the image processing sensor while the machine axes are moving, allow high throughput. In the CT field machines […]

The future points to increase integration. One example of this is the Werth Multisensor System, with conventional stylus systems, the fiber probe, and/or the contour probe, and accessories such as angle optics and ancillary lenses placed directly in the image […]

Computed Tomography as an Engine of Industry 4.0: Many companies still develop, produce and inspect their products in separate, non-networked steps. These processes can be simplified and accelerated with coordinate measuring machines using computed tomography. The result is a complete, […]

The depiction of volumetric data is now integrated the WinWerth® measuring software’s 3D module. Three different views can be used at the same time and can be unhidden or hidden. This provides the option to show the entire volume, i.e. […]

Here is your guide to understand measurement uncertainty and tolerances. For Download Click Here    

The field of X-ray tomography in particular is seeing rapid advancements. A series of software correction methods are now available, so that sufficiently precise CT measurements are usually possible without Autocorrection.  With Auto correction, the measurement process is even suitable […]

Multisensor Measuring Technology for Surgical Instruments and Implants: No other industry is subject to as much regulation or high customer expectations as the field of medical technology. In order to meet all of the quality requirements, Gebr. Brasseler uses the […]

The first experiments for introducing computed tomography (CT) to coordinate metrology took place in the early 2000s. Unfortunately, the process was still much too imprecise, with measurement deviations in the range of tenths of millimeters. One early solution was the […]

Over the following years, the spectrum of optical distance sensors in particular was expanded. The laser distance sensors mentioned above were supplemented by chromatic focus sensors for measuring surface contours and flatness on reflective surfaces. That sensor determines the distance […]

Cooperation between medium-sized companies and universities and other research institutions is particularly well advanced in Germany.  Cooperative efforts between Werth Messtechnik and the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB-the German National Institute of Metrology) in 1998 resulted in a tactile optical micro […]

As the diversity and complexity of work pieces increases, measurement tasks can often no longer be addressed with just one sensor.  Multisensor coordinate measuring machines are created by integrating various sensors in one measuring machine, each allowing individual adaptation to […]

Even after 20 years of image processing in coordinate metrology, revolutionary developments are still possible today.  For example, the Raster Scanning HD process presented in 2016 enables previously unknown measuring speeds while increasing accuracy.  To do so, images of the […]

PC technology in the early 1990s, with the first frame grabbers, was powerful enough to automate optical coordinate measuring machines. With a management buyout in 1993, now 25 years ago, business autonomy was reclaimed and Werth Messtechnik was the first […]

With FormCorrect, the exact work piece geometry is achieved by a mostly automatic correction of the CAD model.  The deviations between the original CAD model and the test work piece measurement data are directly determined by the WinWerth® measurement software […]

The patented Raster Scanning HD method can be used to capture an entire work piece automatically at high resolution. A new function also makes it possible to overlay this raster image with the 2D CAD model in DXF format within […]

Creating measurement programs with 2D-CAD-Online® or 2D-CAD-Offline® is as simple as can be. These two options allow easy CAD-based measurements of 2D contours using the most appropriate sensor. The controls are integrated in the 3D graphic of the WinWerth® software […]

When measuring work pieces with high radiographic length or high material density, such as cylinder heads or turbine blades, scattered radiation and cone beam artifacts often occur.  They make inspection tasks more difficult and increase measurement uncertainty when capturing geometric […]

The workpiece changer for the TomoScope® line automatically feeds work pieces into the machine for optimal usage.  The work piece carriers are located in the device, so measurement sequences can be run during unattended shifts without having to make special […]

The WIP/RS provides for a highly precise roundness measurement with a rotating probe.  The probe is rotated only through the movement of the highly accurate sensor rotary axis.  The user can move probe from a middle position to an outer […]

The measuring probe is a light conducting glass fiber with a standard diameter of 125 µm, smaller probes are available.  By guiding the fiber in a metal tube, very long probes can be produced for larger immersion depths.  The Probe […]

With conventional optical sensors, narrow and deep features, such as air gaps on electric motors or the roundness of fine injection nozzles, are often not measurable.  Laser distance sensors, chromatic focus sensors and confocal sensors fail as a result of […]

Many CAD systems now offer the option of integrating PMI data (Product and Manufacturing Information). The resulting CAD data sets contain, in addition to geometric descriptions of the CAD elements, the dimensioning provided by the design engineer, including tolerances and […]

The WinWerth® 8.42 measurement software offers a variety of new functions for multisensor systems and  X-ray tomography. For coordinate measuring machines with multisensor technology, in addition to PMI supported measuring, 2D-CAD-Online® and 2D-CAD-Offline® have been integrated into the 3D graphic. […]

If the standard fails, the long measuring probes of the Werth Interferometer Probe WIP enable measurements of tightly toleranced geometrical characteristics. Probe geometry and exit angle can be manufactured for the individual requirements of the measuring task, for example for […]

The WinWerth® 8.42 measurement software by Werth Messtechnik offers a variety of new functions for multisensor systems and X-ray tomography. For coordinate measuring machines with multisensor technology, in addition to PMI supported measuring, 2D-CAD-Online® and 2D-CAD-Offline® have been integrated into […]

When the X-rays are attenuated in the material, due to Compton scattering, incident X- ray photons are deflected (scattered) from their original direction of travel by electrons of the penetrated material and are therefore subject to a loss of energy […]

Due to its high measuring speed, the Inspector®  FQ handles applications for conventional coordinate measuring machines that would never have been considered before because of excessively long measurement times. This flexible machine replaces manual gages or gaging fixtures, for example when […]

The new TomoCheck® S HA (High Accuracy) from Werth Messtechnik GmbH has impressive new features. By combining transmission tubes with up to 225 kV acceleration voltage and large, high-resolution detectors, both multi-material assemblies and large-volume workpieces can be measured at high […]

The operating parameters must be precisely specified for the length measurement error as well. The parameters must also be specified and tested for the operating modes measurement “in the image” and measurement “at the image” (e.g. raster tomography). It is […]

The use of multidimensional standards, such as spatial arrays of spheres on pins, is particularly efficient.  This  type of standard can be used to check many or even  all  of  the  lengths  required  to  test the  coordinate  measuring machine against […]

Starting with the DIN EN ISO 10360 international series of standards, the Association of German Engineers (Verein  Deutscher  Ingenieure: VDI) has developed a guideline for acceptance testing of coordinate measuring machines  with  X-ray  tomography. This has  been  integrated  both  in […]

Using spiral (better helical) tomography, the cone beam artifacts that arise in conventional cone beam tomography can be prevented.  This works by moving the measured object along the rotary axis as it rotates.  In spiral tomography, each layer of the […]

In coordinate measuring technology with computed tomography, the dimensional analysis of work pieces made of  multiple materials is particularly challenging.  Multi-material work pieces are often metal and plastic components, such as assembled plug connectors.  The measurement task is typically to […]

With the new feature VolumeCheck, Werth Messtechnik has integrated the depiction of volumetric data into the WinWerth® measuring software’s 3D module. Three different views can be used at the same time and can be unhidden or hidden. This provides the […]

Eccentric Tomography (a) now makes it possible to place the work piece arbitrarily on the rotary table.  This eliminates the laborious and time consuming alignment of the work piece, making measurements more convenient and efficient.  The measuring software automatically calculates […]

The basic physical effect of the working principle of X-ray sensors is the conversion of light energy into electrical charge. This conversion occurs due to the photoelectric effect. Because this is a statistical process, not every photon is converted into […]

… discover new products and possibilities in the new MultiSensor Magazine which was just released at the 2018 Control Show in Stuttgart, Germany.  

Cone beam artifacts can be completely avoided with the use of spiral  tomography. In this special process, a translational motion is performed in the direction of the rotary axis at the same time as the rotation of the object. The […]

For cone beam tomography, the ideal beam geometry (fan beam) is purposefully altered to increase energy efficiency and reduce measurement time. This means that the ideal beam geometry is found only in the center plane. It is defined as the […]

Beam hardening is not considered in the mathematical principle of X-ray tomography.  The measurement errors that result from this are known as beam hardening artifacts.  Their magnitude depends on the material and geometry of the measured object. Beam hardening can […]

The radiation generated in an X-ray tube is not monochromatic.  Similar to the visible light of an incandescent lamp, it is a continuous radiation spectrum with a particular bandwidth (bremsstrahlung or “braking radiation” from German “bremsen”: to brake and Strahlung”: […]

With special software, assemblies can also be inspected. Assembly errors can be easily detected or the assembly can be shown in various functional states. It is also possible to virtually disassemble the components and to investigate them (e.g. to analyze […]

Software tools exist for crack testing, for example.  Material irregularities of fibers can also be visualized.  To analyze the flow behavior of glass fibers, very high resolution is required.

Special software tools are used to automatically identify voids and cracks inside measured objects. These can be detected, classified by size, and counted according to their classification. Fully automatic analysis, with tolerance, can be performed. The voids that have been […]

To provide a way for users of coordinate measuring machines with X-ray tomography to perform material inspections, as known from earlier tomography inspection systems, suitable software tools are provided for material analysis. They are based on direct analysis of the […]

The reproducibility of the measured diameters of such a spray hole, using sections at intervals of about 20µm and measured five times (a). The reproducibility results are better than 1µm. If these results are compared to calibration measurements (b), systematic […]

Objects made of materials that are relatively easy to penetrate with dimensions that are not too large and with average precision requirements can be measured using X-ray tomography with sufficient accuracy. For special tasks, such as measuring components with tight […]

When measuring injector components for diesel engines, for example, diameter tolerances of better than 5µm are required. To measure these tolerances reliably (measurement process capability), it is necessary to ensure measurement errors less than 0.5 µm. One prerequisite for achieving […]

Prior to measuring with several sensors on one coordinate measuring machine, the offset positions of the sensors must be determined. A standard is measured using all the sensors that will be used. The material of this standard must reflect optical […]

A similar approach can be used as an alternative to the Dual-Spectra Tomography for economically measuring plastic parts with embedded metal. In this case, only the internal metallic components are measured with the X-ray sensor, using high energy X-rays.  The […]

The combination of X-ray sensors and tactile or optical sensors in one coordinate measuring machine results in new potential applications.  For various measurement tasks, other sensors besides the X-ray sensor can be integrated in the measurement programs. The image processing sensor, […]

As an alternative approach 2D measurements can be taken directly in the X-ray image for certain work pieces. To do this, it is necessary to determine the local magnification in the X-ray beam path as precisely as possible. Geometric elements […]

In practice, it is common to define drawing dimensions in 2D views and sections. This situation must also be considered when analyzing tomographically generated measurement data. The data for analysis must be extracted from the 3D data set as a […]

For analyzing the 2D dimensional cross sections that are generated, the same software functions are used as for analyzing contours scanned by image processing or with a probe. Individual contour segments can be selected by drawing windows. Standard geometric elements, […]

The comparison of the measured point cloud to CAD or master part data can also be used directly to correct injection molds. To do this, the nominal to actual deviation calculation is performed as a first step. The deviation data […]

A direct comparison of the actual work piece geometry to the nominal geometry, such as CAD data or previously measured master parts, is particularly useful when measuring free form surfaces. However, even form deviations of standard geometric elements or paired […]

It is more effective to set up measurement sequences using 3D CAD data. By simply selecting the CAD patches that describe the areas of interest (e.g. a cylinder or plane), the corresponding measurement points are selected automatically. There are two […]

For classic coordinate measuring machines, all measurement points required for analyzing the required features must be precisely defined before, or no later than during, the measurement process. This is not necessary for tomography. Because the entire work piece is captured, […]

For various applications, the entire work piece geometry must be dimensionally analyzed. To document the quality of a mold for plastic injection molded parts, for example, a sample part must be measured completely (first article inspection). Particularly for medical component […]

The  number  of  rotary  steps  should  be  between 400 and 1600 per 360° revolution. By using a function for image averaging, several images can be overlaid for each rotary position. Thus, noise can be reduced at the cost of measurement […]

The radiation spectrum can also be optimized with the use of filters, made of aluminum, tin, or gold, at the output window of the X-ray tube.  The  use  of  such filters,  however, results in lower radiation intensities, which must be […]

By selecting the voltage and current of the X-ray tubes, the image brightness can be changed.  The voltage changes the frequency spectrum of the radiation at the same time, and must therefore be optimized for the material of the measurement object. […]

  The hazardous health effects of X-rays must be considered when using this radiation for measurements.  Coordinate measuring machines with X-ray tomography that meet the requirements for fully protected machines under the X-ray regulations have lead shielding in the machine […]

For measuring machines with a precision of a few micrometers, the linear axes can have mechanical bearings.  For higher precision requirements, in the sub-micro- meter range, air bearings are used due to the better repeatability. As is typical for coordinate […]

Various sensors can then be selected from the palette of multisensor coordinate measuring machines and used with this interface.  Figure shows such a tilting joint with an image processing measurement head. This measurement head can optionally be equipped with a […]

To hold the magnification constant when changing the distance between the source and sensor, the rotary axis must be shifted accordingly in the direction of the sensor. The increased cone angle can cause measurement errors in the lower and upper […]

If a measuring machine is not designed specifically for a dedicated application, but is intended to have flexibility, linear axes are needed in addition to the rotary axis. They serve to adjust the magnification to position the work piece and […]

The image scale between the object plane and the sensor (usually, but not entirely accurately, referred to as the magnification) is in principle greater for large sensors with large pixels, because a greater distance is needed to form an image […]

The scintillator converts the X-rays that strike the sensor into light. The high-energy photons of the X-rays excite particles of the scintillator material as they pass through it. These particles then emit light in the visible frequency spectrum. This makes […]

The smaller the cone angle, the lower these measurement errors. This means that it makes sense to design high precision machines with a greater distance between the X-ray source and the sensor. However, this reduces the efficiency of the X-ray […]

X-ray sensors are available both as line sensors and area sensors. From a purely geometric standpoint, line sensors would be perfect. Synchronized movement of the X-ray source and the line sensor relative to the measured object in the direction of […]

The construction of an X-ray tube is very complex in detail. In addition to the electrodes and the target, it has a large number of components for focusing the beam, electrode heating, and other functions.  Due to the required   measurement […]

The targets of X-ray tubes are fundamentally classified as reflection targets and transmission targets. The difference when using reflection or transmission targets is in the available radiation power, and therefore the measurement time in conjunction with the available minimum focal […]

The tubes used to generate X-rays are a core component of X-ray tomography machines. They operate on the basic principle of electron beam tubes. Free electrons are generated in a vacuum by thermionic emission, and accelerated by an electrical field […]

If the diameter of the enveloping circle of the measured object is larger than the sensor size in the work piece plane (e. g. disc shaped parts), the rastering must be done perpendicular to the rotary axis (seen in above image).  […]

When discussing resolution in the field of coordinate measuring technology, two categories must be fundamentally differentiated: structural (or spatial) resolution and positional (or metrological) resolution. The structural resolution defines how small structures on the measured object can be and still […]

This figure shows an example of rastering along the rotary axis. However, this can be used only for relatively slim objects, such as long connectors. In this example, without raster tomography a voxel size of 0.25 mm is achieved with […]

The resolution of the entire image is increased by capturing several partial images. This can lead to a significantly greater quantity of available data. If raster tomography is used only for expanding the measurement range for measuring larger parts, this […]

The method described above, wherein the entire object is captured in one image, can also be referred to as tomography “in the image”, as in image processing.  At times, the entire measured object cannot be captured in one image. The […]

Another application for raster tomography is to increase spatial resolution, if the sensor does not have sufficient resolution to measure small details of larger work pieces “in the picture”.  In this case, the appropriate magnification level is selected to achieve […]

If the neighbor points of a given measurement point are required for further processing, they are identified directly by the triangle definition. No time-consuming search algorithms are needed. If the entire amount of object information is not required, the calculation […]

Alternatively, the edge locations can be derived from the local maximum of the differentiated volumes, or by means of integral edge definitions.  These methods have a significant effect on the precision of the entire system.   These calculation steps can readily […]

The volume information thus derived can be used for an initial visual inspection for cavities, inclusions, or other internal structures.  In order to derive dimensions from this data, the precise location of the material borders or transitions (e.g. from metal […]

After filtering, the existing projection images are reverse-projected (commonly known as back projection).  The back projection of the 2D X-ray images can be imagined as though the procedure for generating the projection images using the measuring machine is mathematically reversed […]

Filtering, to increase the intensity of the edges,  is  done  through  the  convolution  of the image with a filtering function. This can be imagined as similar to sharpening the focus of a digital photo by using image processing software.    […]

Volume data can be calculated from the two- dimensional radiographic images.  This   is analogous   to   the   pixel   (picture   element) which 2D image processing sensors use to represent the local light intensity of the image in an equidistant, planar array.  The […]

By shifting the rotary axis and the measured object relative to the X-ray unit (source and sensor), the magnification can be adjusted for work piece size and tolerances.   In this manner, small objects or segments of objects can be measured […]

Prior to tomography of a work piece, the right imaging scale (magnification) must be selected for the measuring machine. The desired detail resolution must be considered. It must also be ensured that the desired area of the work piece, or […]

X-ray tomography uses the ability of X-ray radiation to penetrate objects. An X-ray tube can be considered almost a point source of X- rays. The X-rays pass through the measured object to reach the X-ray sensor. On the way through […]

X-ray tomography, also known as computed tomography (CT), can be used to completely capture spatially extensive objects, including their internal structures for metrology purposes. The Austrian mathematician Johann Radon (1887–1956) laid the mathematical foundation for this process in the beginning […]

Topographic Scanning with the New Chromatic Focus Line Sensor Multidimensional distance sensors enable high point densities and measuring speeds.  Often, however, this comes at a cost of increased measurement uncertainty. Learn more about the new CFL Chromatic Focus Line Sensor. […]

Modern coordinate measuring technology has an optimal sensor for virtually any measurement task. Different measurement tasks on the same workpiece can usually be handled most efficiently with a multisensor coordinate measuring machine. Learn more about the Multisensor Advantage.

Other examples of the measurement of microcomponents include components for optical waveguide connectors with a diameter of approximately 120 µm and microgearwheels with modules measuring approximately 0.1 mm. Further measuring tasks of this type include the measurement of geometries of […]

Miniaturized components with increasingly smaller geometric features are manufactured for electronics, medical engineering, communications engineering, and the motor vehicle industries to enable complex functions requiring only a minimum amount of space. Inspections of bore diameters smaller than 0.1 mm and […]

Rotationally symmetrical parts are used in the construction of motor vehicles (especially in engines and transmissions), in the watch- and clockmaking industry, and in other branches of industry. Where relatively simply structured components manufactured by turning or grinding operations were […]

In order to meet any special requirements regarding measuring speed (large number of geometric elements on the hob cutter; production stoppage due to measurement, etc.), linear-drive coordinate measuring machines are preferred. The swiveling sensors make it possible to view the […]

Metal-cutting or machining processes are the preferred means of fabricating metal workpieces. Constantly increasing demands regarding precision, service life and machining speed have created a need for increased accuracy in the measurement of tool geometry. This is especially the case […]

The definition of the tolerance structures, especially regarding the reference systems, should be coordinated between the manufacturer and the customer from the beginning. The main advantage of this second inspection procedure is function-related measurement. The output is easy to survey […]

Profiled workpieces made of plastic, rubber or aluminum are required in the construction of vehicles (door and window seals, aluminum spaceframes), in the building trade (window profiles) and in automation systems (belt profiles, assembly modules). In the extrusion process, complex […]

Plate bending parts are widely manufactured for PC boards and plug contacts in the electrical engineering and automotive industries. A two-dimensional part with cut-outs is the classical application for 100% optical coordinate measuring machines such as the profile projector. Due […]

The injection molding process makes it possible to manufacture very complex plastic parts of good quality. Examples of such parts include functional and housing parts for automotive components, electronic and medical equipment and general consumer goods. A general trend toward […]

Since he cannot make the supplier accountable for his own measuring uncertainty, the customer can only file claims if these extended limits are violated. This is especially likely to lead to a contradiction if the customer’s own measuring uncertainty is […]

The capability of the measuring process is examined based on a comparison of the attainable (feature-dependent) measuring uncertainty, including all related influences, and the equally feature-related tolerance. A similar procedure is described in the company standards mentioned above. General procedures […]

Other part attributes such as form, roughness and contamination exert additional influence. For multisensor coordinate measuring machines, the parameters of the sensors are especially important for the attainable measuring uncertainty and must be added to the other machine attributes. Classified […]

Every measurement of dimensions such as size, angle, radius, form and position on workpieces is subject to a certain measuring uncertainty. The entire measuring process including the machine technology, the attributes of the part, the geometry of the features measured, […]

The most important attribute of a coordinate measuring machine is its contribution to the measuring uncertainty attainable in a measuring process. The user must be able to compare different machines, define their conditions of purchase and check their performance. The […]

Colloquially speaking, the term “measuring accuracy” refers to everything that characterizes the precision of measured results. However, a closer look shows that a distinction must be made between various categories: 1. Definition of the characteristics of a coordinate measuring machine […]

The same software configuration can also be operated without the measuring machine on a Cad-Offline® workstation. Here the measurement programs are created and tested on the CAD model. This saves valuable machining time and ensures that the measurement plans are […]

In the following, two possible best-fit strategies are presented based on the example of a 2-D section. In the first case, the location of the points actually measured is optimized by minimizing the distances from the nominal points (Werth BestFit). […]

The numerical evaluation of scanned contours or surfaces is basically limited to regular geometric features such as cylinders, planes, straight lines, spheres and circles. However, modern methods of production increasingly permit the manufacture of free forms for which regular shapes […]

The sensors are selected directly via the user interface of the multisensor coordinate measuring machine. Among other things, the software takes the distance between the sensors into account. This distance is determined by qualifying a calibrated standard (reference sphere). The […]

In industrial practice, it is often necessary to “quickly run off” a couple of measurements of manufactured parts. Such tasks are often assigned to employees who are not familiar with or lack training in the operation of coordinate measuring machines. […]

Modern multisensor coordinate measuring machines cover a wide spectrum of measurement jobs of varying complexity. The required operator qualifications range from employees who have received little training and only occasionally perform measurements to metrology specialists who fully exploit all of […]

The process for measuring a workpiece using a TomoScope® is shown in Figure 44. The measured object is located on the rotary table. During the tomography process, many 2-D radiographic images are taken. The part rotates once through 360 degrees. […]

Figure 43 illustrates the principle of the described correction method. The geometric artifact arises because, when rotating the rectangular measured object, shorter radiographic lengths occur at the corners than in the middle. This leads to an apparent spherical shape during […]

Other geometric artifacts arise from scattered radiation, the orientation of the rotary axis in the image, and other effects (Fig. 42). Analytical capture and correction of these complex interrelationships is barely possible at the moment, considering that the associated parameters […]

To be able to measure the shape and position of a measured object with sufficient precision, it is necessary to correct systematic errors in tomography. Several process-related effects lead to these systematic deviations. Common to all of them is the […]

Operation of the measuring device is done by the measurement software which is also used for optical-tactile coordinate measuring machines. The software modules needed for tomography measurements are also integrated in WinWerth® (Fig. 40). The entire measurement process using computer […]

The TomoCheck® shown in Figure 39 can be configured to suit the applications. Its mechanical base components come from the VideoCheck® product line. In order to obtain significantly lower measurement uncertainty, air bearings and other high-precision components are used. For […]

The Werth TomoScope® is the first implementation of the above principle in the world. The mechanical components, and thus the device precision, are based on the ScopeCheck® concept. By selecting the appropriate X-ray components (voltage range of Xray tube, detector […]

The base of the machine frame is of solid granite design. Other system components, such as scales, linear and rotary axes, drives, and guide components come from the family of coordinate measuring machines described above. Using this construction, calibration data […]

X-ray tomography uses the ability of X-ray radiation to penetrate objects. On the way through an object, part of the impinging radiation is absorbed. The longer the radiographic length of the object, the less radiation escapes from the opposite side. […]

In view of the required piece numbers, the machine classes previously introduced can be manufactured in volume. Specialized machine configurations (for example, two-dimensional machines for measuring profiles and flat parts) can be derived from these lines for restricted applications. In […]

For measuring ranges exceeding roughly 400 mm and where higher accuracy requirements exist, it generally proves economical to use bridge-type machines equipped with air bearings. A fixed-bridge construction is optimally suited to machines with transmitted-light illumination. The rigidity of the […]

Moreover, this guideway system also minimizes friction, reducing backlash on reversal as well. For the same reason, housing covers that produce friction are generally avoided. The long-term stability of the system is further supported by the fact that the guideways […]

In cases where higher demands exist regarding the precision and long-term stability of machines (for example, in the metrology lab and in production control), special new design approaches must be taken. Aluminum is used as a structural material to improve […]

One major area of application for coordinate measuring machines is the quality control of manufacturing processes. In order to keep transport routes short, coordinate measuring machines should be installed as close to the production environment as possible. The prevailing environmental […]

Multisensor coordinate measuring machines use a combination of several of the sensors described above. The properties of these sensors usually depend on their various primary applications. Regarding applications, their distinguishing characteristics include the size of the object features they can […]

In addition, the principle of self-centering measurement with measuring probing systems is shown here based on the example of the fiber probe. A calibrated sphere is positioned in a tooth space to determine the pitch errors of a gear. The […]

If the glass fiber supplies light to the probing tip, measurements can be performed in the self-illuminating mode (Fig. 24). It is also possible to use the fiber probe in the transmitted-light mode. Due to its small dimensions, the resulting […]

Fiber probes are manufactured by wire-drawing thin glass fibers and melting the spheres onto them. Good positioning of fiber probes at the location to be measured can be achieved by mounting them in a hollow metal needle (Fig. 23).

The conventional mechanical sensors mentioned above all have one thing in common: the signal is transmitted from the probing element through a rigid shaft to the actual sensor (for example, a switch or piezoelectric element). Since each deflection of the […]

In a measuring probing system, the sensor is equipped with path measuring systems (scales, inductive sensors, optical measuring systems, etc.), usually in all three coordinate axes. If, upon contacting the workpiece, the stylus sphere is deflected in any direction, the […]

It is not necessary to remove the stylus from the workpiece in order to measure several different surfaces of the same object. When combined with the appropriate control software, this principle provides the basis for automatic scanning of object surfaces […]

Basic touch trigger probing systems function according to the “three-leg principle” (Fig. 19a). If the stylus sphere contacts the workpiece, a trigger signal is generated for read-out by the scale systems of the coordinate measuring machine. The measured point results […]

The use of visual sensors usually requires reflected-light as well as transmitted-light illumination. A distinction must be made here between two types: bright field reflected light is projected onto the object parallel to the axis of the beam path. Ideally, this […]

The basis for every optical measurement is to display the features being measured with a highly accentuated contrast. This can best be achieved on the outer edges of objects. In this case, measurement can be performed in transmitted light (Fig. […]

Today, image processing sensors are commonly used as visual sensors (Fig. 8). The object is imaged onto a matrix camera by the lens. The camera electronics convert the optical signal to a digital image, which is then used to calculate […]

The lowest measuring uncertainty can be achieved using telecentric lens systems. The advantage of telecentrics is that the lateral magnification remains constant when the working distance is altered within the telecentric range, thus preventing errors of dimension. This is especially […]

Today, digitization of images is usually achieved using CCD cameras in conjunction with PC components suitable for image acquisition (framegrabber boards, firewire interfaces, etc.). The chief advantage offered by the CCD camera over the competing CMOS chip lies in its […]

All tactile sensors function on the principle of mechanical contact with the workpiece. The resulting signals are then derived from this contact for further processing. A distinction is made here between touch trigger and measuring probing systems. With a tactile […]

Line sensors (2-D) and area sensors (3-D) function similarly to the spot-shaped distance sensors (1-D) mentioned above. In the laser light section technique (Fig. 16a), the conventional laser triangulation technique is extended to two-dimensional measurement by displacing the laser beam […]

The measuring principle of a laser point sensor is based on the projection of a beam of light produced by a laser (usually a laser diode) onto the object to be measured. The reflected beam spot is imaged on an […]

One benefit of computed tomography is that the workpiece is captured completely, including undercuts and internal geometries. Historically, computed tomography has been too slow for measurements during the manufacturing process. For years, real-time reconstruction in WinWerth® in parallel with image […]

The same hardware components are used for autofocus as for image processing. When the sensor is moved along the optical axis, a sharply defined image results only in a single position. If the sensor is defocused, blurred images are produced. […]

Electronic components such as plug connectors are getting smaller, presenting ever greater challenges for manufacturing.  ERNI Electronics uses 3D CNC multisensor measuring machines to secure its manufacturing processes, one of which has mastered X-ray computed tomography.  Modern metrology allows rapid […]

The term “visual sensor” denotes all sensors which, similar to the human eye, pick up at least a two-dimensional image of the object being measured. The intensity distribution of this optical image is detected and evaluated by a sensor. For […]

The sensors of a coordinate measuring machine are used to pick up the primary signal from the workpiece. They are designed using mechanical and, in some cases, opto-electronic and software components of varying complexity. The sensors must be selected on […]

For higher precision requirements and larger measuring ranges, the mechanical guide way of the desktop model is replaced by systems with air bearings.  The high-precision guide ways are typically made of a natural hard stone material like granite.  All moving […]

The Mechanical components of this group of instruments were created as a logical further development of measuring microscopes and measuring projectors.  They primarily consist of a mechanical stage with mechanical bearings (Fig. 5a).  The Z axis also runs on mechanical […]

The measuring projector combines the advantages of the measuring microscope with those of the profile projector.  On its ground screen, the image can be compared with a drawing just as quickly as with a profile projector.  Since it is equipped […]

The measuring microscope is considered to be the “father” of all coordinate measuring machines. Here, a microscope and the human eye are used as a “sensor”. The operator uses a reticle integrated in the beam path to aim at the points of […]

Coordinate measuring machines are used to measure geometric features of workpieces such as size, diameter, angle, angularity and parallelism. In principle, relatively complex shape, size and position measurements are reduced to the determination and mathematical evaluation of the spatial coordinates […]

Up until a few years ago optical (or non-contact) dimensional metrology was dominated by measuring microscopes and projectors which had remained more or less unchanged since the development of the profile projector (below). However, the automatic measurement of geometric features […]

An image processing sensor with zoom optics supports different magnifications, thus expanding the potential applications of the coordinate measuring machine.  A change in magnification, however, also affects the other parameters of the zoom optics.  This must be taken into consideration […]

There are a great many contact and non-contact sensors for measuring workpiece surfaces.  Depending on the measurement task and the surface properties, a suitable sensor is selected.  The greatest flexibility comes with different sensors in a single measuring machine. For […]

When selecting a coordinate measuring machine with a computed tomography sensor system, the resolution required for the measurement task must be considered.  The interplay of the detector, X-ray source, and location of the workpiece is critical.  If the machine components […]

Scanning is a way to capture the geometries of workpieces with a lot of points in a reliable process, to measure dimensions, shape, and orientation in a functionally correct manner.  Contour scanning uses a feedback control algorithm in conjunction with […]

Selecting the right measuring equipment for dimensional measurement tasks is very important.  The basic approach is:  THE APPLICATION DETERMINES THE SENSOR.  The user needs to consider various aspects when making this decision. Multisensor Coordinate Measuring Machines due to their high […]

Werth delivers value added solutions. Isometric Micro Molding is the only micro molding company in the world with four in-house key capabilities for successful micro molding. An integral part of their setup is the Werth TomoScope – the most accurate […]

For productive, efficient machining many companies use solid carbide tools that are specially matched to the production process which can reliably maintain tolerances even in the micron range. In order to be able to manufacture these tools consistently, Wolf relies […]

Measuring injection molded parts from the top and from the side in one setup has been impossible for medical device manufacturer Balda Medical, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany, until now. Multisensor machines from Werth Messtechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany, solve this problem with […]

By combining the Werth VideoCheck® UA multisensor coordinate measuring machine with the highly accurate SP80 probe system from Renishaw, length measurement deviations MPE E of (0.5 + L / 600) µm can be realized. Very good results are also obtained […]

With several hundred installations worldwide, the Werth Fiber Probe, developed in co-operation with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB – German National Metrology Institute), is currently the most commonly used micro-probe. It has been used for many years to measure micro-gears, gages, […]

The ScopeCheck® series of measuring machines permits optimal measuring with each sensor. Using the dual ram approach and the Werth multisensor interface, collision-free measurements with multiple sensors can now be used on the shop floor. In essence, two coordinate measuring […]

Raster scanning can be used to capture large areas with high structural resolution automatically. The image processing sensor is continuously in motion as many overlapping images are recorded at a high frequency. A reconstruction process integrates these images into one […]

Coordinate measuring machines with computed tomography sensors have become a practically indispensable part of modern quality control. When the Werth TomoScope® 200 was presented at the Control trade show in Sinsheim in 2005, a new era in coordinate measuring technology […]

For many years, measuring fuel injector nozzles has been part of the standard repertoire at Werth Messtechnik GmbH. Typically, the injector hole diameters of just a few tenths of a millimeter are measured using VideoCheck multisensor coordinate measuring machines with […]

Due to their “non-contact probing”, optical sensors are very well suited for high-precision 2D and 3D measurements of micro-features. A large number of measurement points can be captured very quickly and easily. The application-specific resolution can be adjusted very easily […]

Werth Messtechnik offers even the manual entry level model of the EasyScope series with automatic image processing and autofocus function for measuring in the vertical axis. This puts the EasyScope well ahead of all other manual video measuring machines. Of […]

With a measurement range of up to 3500 mm in the X axis and 1750 mm in the Y axis, the ScopeCheck® FB is designed for measuring large-volume workpieces close to the manufacturing process. Its solid construction with a fixed […]

The NanoMatic, a CNC measuring machine for rapid production monitoring of tooling, combines the benefits of proven Werth coordinate measuring machines and Tool MT’s more than 20 years of experience in tool metrology. With a design that dampens vibration and […]

Precision requirements for work pieces are becoming more demanding and are often in the micrometer range. This means that requirements for master workpieces for gaging benches and machines as used in the automotive industry are also increasing. The VideoCheck® V […]

In coordinate measuring technology with computed tomography (CT), the dimensional analysis of work pieces made of multiple materials is particularly challenging. Werth Messtechnik has developed a unique solution. Multi-material work pieces are often metal and plastic components, such as assembled […]

The ScopeCheck MB from Werth Messtechnik GmbH was designed specifically for the measurement of large and heavy work pieces. The position of the sensors is adjusted with the moving bridge, so it is not necessary to move the work piece […]

Every measurement result is associated with a measurement uncertainty that is influenced by numerous factors. In addition to the measuring machine, the operator, the measuring object, and the features to be measured, the environmental conditions are a factor that is […]

Region of Interest” (ROI) tomography was developed to create high-resolution images of some regions of larger work pieces. In the past, the entire work pieces always had to be fully scanned at high resolution. ROI-CT only measures the relevant area […]

The Werth VideoCheck V HA is the world’s most precise multisensor coordinate measuring machine for tool applications. Its precision air bearings and solid granite design, together with a high-precision rotary axis, achieve levels of measuring uncertainty that allow tools with tolerances […]

The VideoCheck UA (Ultra Accuracy) multisensor coordinate measuring machine provides unique technical properties for precision applications. Special air bearing technology, integrated vibration isolation, temperature-stable encoder systems with better than 1-nanometer resolution, and a special drive system all support reproducibility in the […]

The ultra compact Werth ScopeCheck® S Probe coordinate measuring machine has advanced scanning capability, giving it a very good price-to-performance ratio. The measurement range is 400 mm in the X axis, 200 mm in the Y axis, and 200 mm […]

The term Autocorrection was coined by the Werth Messtechnik company with the introduction of the first coordinate measuring machines with computed tomography (CT) in 2005. Thanks to the greatly improved precision of CT, the original multisensor method is now used […]

The unique design of the Werth VideoCheck S with constant tension guides ensures high precision and long term stability. In this guideway system magnetic and gravitational forces produce the preload for the X and Y axis. This prevents changes in […]

The new version 8.40 of WinWerth® has a number of additional functions. The expansion of scan path and point distribution modes to cover all standard geometric elements eliminates the need for time-consuming manual positioning of the sensor. The risk of […]

For many years the VideoCheck® coordinate measuring machines have proven the value of measuring with multiple sensors mounted on two independent Z rams. The risk of a collision between sensor and work piece is substantially reduced because the sensors that […]

The new TomoCheck® HA (High Accuracy) 200 from Werth Messtechnik GmbH has impressive new features. By combining transmission tubes with up to 225 kV acceleration voltage and large, high-resolution detectors, both multi-material assemblies and large-volume workpieces can be measured at high […]

With the WMS Multisensor System multisensor technology is now perfectly integrated. This universal interface permits the exchange of various sensors at the identical position on the measuring machine, e.g. conventional touch probes, the WCP Werth Contour Probe, lens attachments, angular […]

The 3D-Patch/S is available for all Werth Messtechnik coordinate measuring machines, including retrofitting of existing machines. A light control algorithm adjusts the intensity of illumination automatically to the workpiece surface. Werth coordinate measuring machines offer the possibility to apply the […]

The ScopeCheck V and VideoCheck V machine series from Werth Messtechnik GmbH have the perfect solution for precision measurement of challenging, rotationally symmetric components. In contrast to classic shaft measuring machines, where only 2D dimensions can be determined using transmitted […]

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