The construction of an X-ray tube is very complex in detail. In addition to the electrodes and the target, it has a large number of components for focusing the beam, electrode heating, and other functions.  Due to the required   measurement accuracy, the temperature plays a prominent role when using X-ray tubes in coordinate measuring  machines.  Because X-ray tubes in general have a low efficiency level, there is a relatively large power loss. This is removed from the measuring machine by a suitable liquid cooling system with heat exchangers.

Seen in image above: Schematic of a 225 kV microfocus X-ray tube with open construction:  a) Reflection target b) Water cooling c) Centering aperture d) Shutter target  e) Anode  f) Grid  g)  Isolator  h) Usable beam cone  i) Focusing coil  j) Centering and deflecting coils  k) Filament/cathode  l) Vacuum pump m) High voltage cable connector  (Source: Viscom AG, Hannover, Germany)